In 1869, Swiss chemist Friedrich Miescher identifies DNA, which he called “nuclein.”

In 1883, Francis Galton, coined the phrase Eugenics, the idea that the human species can be improved through discouraging reproduction of those with “undesirable” traits  and encouraging reproduction of those with “desirable” traits.

In 1896, HG Wells published “The Island of Doctor Moreau” which centers around a colony of half-human/half-animal hybrids (chimeras).

In 1901, Monsanto was founded in STL as a chemical company.

In 1907, Indiana becomes the first state with a compulsory sterilization law.  These laws spread all over the US and compulsory sterilization has been practiced all over the world.

In 1916, Margaret Sanger, known eugenicist, opens the first birth control clinic in the US, which eventually led to the foundation of Planned Parenthood Foundation of America.

In 1930s, “Better Baby” contests were regularly held in America.

In 1932, Aldous Huxley published “Brave New Word” a dystopian novel where human reproduction is abolished and breeding takes place in hatcheries, including attempts to manipulate physical environment during development to reinforce a caste system.

In 1949, Josef Mengele, the notorious Nazi “angel of death” who conducted horrific experiments on children & adults, with a focus on twins, abortions & forced sterilizations, flees to Argentina where he is protected by Latin American officials until his reported death in 1986.  While there, he continues to conduct medical procedures, experiments and abortions. Most of his work for the Nazis was aimed at propagating a superior Aryan race through genetics and eradicating “undesirables” and “useless eaters” through the mass euthanasia/genocide of the Holocaust.

In 1952, two scientists named Robert Briggs and Thomas King report that they had succeeded in cloning frogs.

In 1953, American biologist James Watson & English physicist Francis Crick announce that DNA exists in the form of a 3D double helix.

In 1957, Julius Huxley, known eugenicist and brother of Aldous Huxley, publishes an influential paper on transhumanism, a movement to transform the human race by various technological enhancements.

In 1961, BT (Bacillus thuringiensis), a bacterium that is lethal to the digestive tracts of insects, is introduced as a pesticide.

In 1971, a patent was filed for the first genetically modified microbe.

In 1973, abortion become legal in the US in court case Roe V. Wade.

In 1974, glyphosate was brought to the market by Monsanto under the name Roundup.

In 1974, the first genetically modified animal, a mouse was produced by Professor Rudolph Jaenisch.

In 1978, the first “test-tube” baby Louise Brown was born, sparking the current IVF movement, from which 5 million babies have been born.

In 1978, a movie called the Boys from Brazil was released which was a fictional story depicting Josef Mengele conducting cloning operations in Brazil, including several Adolf Hitler clones.

In 1980, a biotech company named Calgene was created to focus on the creation of GM plants.

In 1982, the FDA approved the first GMO product, insulin made for GM bacteria.

In 1982, the movie Blade Runner depicts genetically engineered replicants (clones) who are used as slave labor on other worlds but are not allowed on Earth.

In 1988, Weird Al Yankovic releases the song “I Think I’m a Clone Now” snippet  “ I remember how it began.  They produced a carbon copy man. Born in a science lab late one night. Without a mother or a father, just a test tube and a womb with a view.”

In 1989, an IVF procedure called pre-implantation genetic diagnosis emerges where embryo biopsy is performed prior to embryo transfer to look for genetic mutations like Huntington’s disease, sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis etc. Pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) looks for chromosomal abnormalities or aneuplodies like Down Syndrome before embryos are implanted.  Many people use PGD for sex selection (legal in US, not legal in UK)

In 1994, people began to eat the first GMO tomato, Calgene’s Flavr Savr tomato

In 1994, the Oregon Death With Dignity Act passes legalizing physician-assisted suicide in that state.

In 1996, Monsanto purchases Calgene. This was also the year that BT-resistant GM maize was introduced.

In 1996, the first publicly cloned sheep named Dolly was born, sparking international hysteria. Dolly was created by Sir Ian Wilmut in Scotland, derived from a mammary gland cell and named after Dolly Parton….The birth of Dolly occurred after over 400 tries.  She gave birth to twins and triplets.  She developed progressive lung disease and arthritis in 2003 (normal life expectancy for her breed 11-12 years, she was 6 ½).  Scientists claim these issues were not related to the cloning.

In 1997, developmental biologist Stuart Newman, applied for a patent for a human/animal chimera.

In 2000, an Arnold Schwarzeneggar movie is released called “The 6th Day” about an illegal human cloning operation.

In 2001, the first paper about cytoplasmic transfer ( mitochondrial DNA from two women and DNA from one man, so-called “three person IVF”) is published by Jacques Cohen.  Several children were born from this process before it was banned by the FDA shortly after. It’s hard to know what happened to these kids as information is scare but at least some had chromosomal problems like Turner syndrome.

In 2002, the Raelian cult, a UFO religion that claims members were created by extraterrestials called Elohim, announced the birth of the first cloned baby named Eve.  The cult was unable to prove this claim which was felt to be a hoax.

In 2003, the Human Genome Project successfully sequences the entire human genome.

In 2004, Dr. Panayiotis Zavos claimed to have implanted the first human cloned embryo in a woman, which sparked a documentary film.  The procedure was not successful.

In 2005, first cloned puppy was produced.

In 2006, President George Bush recommends a ban on human cloning, experimentation on human embryos and human/animal chimeras.

In 2008, George Bush signs the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act.

In 2008, Star Wars: The Clone Wars movie is released which centers around a clone vs droid war.

In 2009, Dr. Zavos continued to claim that he was transferring cloned embryos into women although none had apparently resulted in a pregnancy. He also claimed to have cloned the embryos of three dead people.  He stated that he used harvested tissue from the dead people to create human-animal hybrid models that would help him improve the cloning procedure.

In 2010, stem cell bank Boyalife was founded in China.

In 2010, a movie called Splice depicts the manipulation of DNA to create chimeras.

In 2011, Sooam Biotech company opens in Seoul, Korea, specializing in cloning puppies for $100,000. Company headed by Hwang Woo-Suk who came under fire in 2005 for faking stem cell research results.

In 2012, CRISPR technology introduced (gene-editing).

In 2013, the first cloned embryonic stem cell lines, so called therapeutic cloning, were announced.  These are embryos cloned to produce stem cells that theoretically could be used to grow new cells/organs for an individual out of their own genome (no one has proven this is effective).  This is deliberately contrasted with reproductive cloning, i.e. creating human clones.

In 2013, Orphan Black TV series premieres on BBC America, looking at the moral and ethical issues surrounding clones including identity issues, clones as a product or property with a barcode, etc.

In 2014, the first GM monkeys appear which were created using CRISPR

In 2014, Boyalife and Sooam join forces to orchestrate the creation of 100,000 GM cattle, purported to taste like Kobe beef.

In 2014, US announces first cloned human embryos.

In 2014, the Washington Post publishes an article by Claire Achmad outlining the dangers of babies as commodities in the international commercial surrogacy world which has become a quagmire of abandonment, trafficking and adversely affecting children’s personal identity.  An example is the story of an Australian couple who abandoned their Down Syndrome child to her Thai surrogate after she refused to have an abortion.

In 2015, a paper is published regarding 3D printing of embryonic stem cells.  ESCs are mixed with hydrogel with the intention of growing micro-organs from scratch.

In 2015, the 1st CRISPR GM human embryos appear.

In 2015, NIH announces it will not support research on human-animal chimeras.

In 2015, the Center for Medical Progress releases a series of undercover videos showing Planned Parenthood benefitting financially and brokering deals with research companies to sell fetal tissues and specific fetal organs harvested from aborted babies.

In 2015, article in NYT about frozen embryos say REIs estimate that 1 million leftover embryos from IVF procedures are in storage.

In 2015, the International Summit of Human Gene Editing in DC stated that “Altering eggs, sperm, embryos, germ-line modification” should not be used to establish a pregnancy.

In 2015, The Center for Genetics & Society lobbied for a moratorium on human genetic modification in the US. Their policy statement states that the US “should explicitly prohibit the creation of genetically modified human beings.”

In 2015, a book is published called “GMO Sapiens: The Life-Changing Science of Designer Babies” by Paul Knoepfler, an associate professor of cell biology & human anatomy at UC-Davis. He expresses caution about genetic modification of humans, including referencing the eugenics movement. His blog is at

In 2016, bioethicist Gregory Pence releases a book called “What We Talk About When We Talk about Clone Club: Bioethics and Philosophy in Orphan Black”

In 2016, scientists meet behind closed doors to discuss creating a complete synthetic human genome.

In 2016, the World Economic Forum met in Davos, Switzerland with the theme of the Fourth Industrial Revolution discussing topics such as the effect of artificial intelligence on the economy, neuroscience development/mind-reading and designer babies.

In 2016, the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority approved an application by developmental biologist Kathy Niakan at the Francis Crick Institute in London, to use CRISPR in healthy human embryos, which were be to destroyed after 7 days.

In Vitro Fertilization: A woman’s egg production is stimulated hormonally and the eggs are retrieved by an ultrasound-guided transvaginal procedure.  The eggs are exposed to sperm to create embryos.  ICSI (Intra-cytoplasmic Sperm Injection) is a procedure where an individual sperm is directly inserted into an individual egg. An embryo or embryos are then transferred into the uterus of the woman or a surrogate/gestational carrier.

Cloning: Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), An egg is retrieved from an adult ovary, it’s nucleus is removed, a procedure called enucleation.  Live skin cells are retrieved from a donor and injected into the enucleated egg. An electro cell manipulator causes a parthogenetic (partho- Greek for maiden) activation which initiates cell division.  The embryo in then transferred into a surrogate mother/gestational carrier.

CRISPR – Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, microscopic pair of scissors, Cas 9 protein edits genes and replaces them. This is a gene sequence originating in a microbe (Strep. Pyogenes) that can cut or snip out DNA bases and insert new ones.

Therapeutic embryonic stem cell cloning:  Cloning procedure occurs through SCNT, then after 4-5 days in culture, embryonic stem cells are removed and propogated.

Reproductive cloning: creating a human cloned embryo to be transferred into a womb to result in a human baby.

Cloning Myths (from GMO Sapiens by Paul Knoepfler):

Myth 1.  Clones are just identical twins.

Myth 2. All cloning is the same.

Myth 3. Cloning is a ticket to immortality.

Myth 4. Human cloning is impossible.

Myth 5. Clones would look exactly the same.

Myth 6. Cloning is illegal in the US.

“The more we do to you, the less you seem to believe we are doing it.” – Josef Mengele

Gregory Pence on creating clones for harvesting organs: “I think an interesting scenario would be if you created a fetus and put it in some kind of artificial womb, essentially rendering it brain-dead, so it never became conscious. So you have this body that’s maintained, but a person never develops in it.  Then you’re not ever killing a person…there’s a woman named Rita Green, who was a nurse and she went into a persistent vegetative state in about 1951 and they’ve kept her body alive in a nursing home since then.” Interview in Wired 4/16.

“I would argue that we cannot really understand human genetic modification until we create GM humans, and then if things go wrong, it may well be too late in terms of long-term negative consequences.” Paul Knoepfler in GMO Sapiens.

“Human nature itself lies on the operating table, ready for alteration, for eugenic and psychic enhancement,” for wholesale redesign. In leading laboratories, academic and industrial, new creators are confidently amassing their powers and quietly honing their skills, while on the street their evangelists are zealously prophesying a posthuman future.  For anyone who cares about preserving our humanity, the time has come for paying attention.” Leon Kass, former chairman of the President’s Council on Bioethics in his book “Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: the Challenges of Bioethics”

“People will come to love their oppression, to adore the technologies that undo their capacities to think.” – Aldous Huxley, “Brave New World”

Princeton geneticist Lee Silver addresses the creation of two classes in his book “Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World”: the GenRich, those 10% of the population made up of synthetic genes, a hereditary class of genetic aristocrats vs the Naturals, the non-genetically modified, who work as low paid service providers or laborers.  The 1997 Movie Gattaca had a similar theme of the Valids vs the Invalids.

“The greatest danger of a belief in genetic engineering lies in its likely social impact. Eugenics will inevitably be used by those with wealth and power to make others believe that prenatal genetics make people better.  This would be as much a myth as believing that the sperm of a Nobel Laureates would make a genius child.” Sheldon Krimsky, Bioethicist at Tufts University

“Who to him who strives with his Maker! Let the potsherd strive with the potsherds of the earth! Shall the clay say to him who forms it, ‘What are you making?’ Or shall your handiwork say, ‘He has no hands?’ Woe to him who says to his father, ‘What are you begetting?’ Or to the woman, ‘What have you brought forth?”  Isaiah 45:9-10 NKJV

Tom Horn in his book Zenith 2016:

-If we alter human nature then we will be conducting an experiment whose outcome we cannot be sure of.

-We should not conduct experiments of great magnitude if we do not know the outcome.

-We do not know the outcome of (many of these) experiments.

-So we ought not to alter human nature.